Diagnostic Radiology

A message from the Program Director

Thank you for visiting the Norwalk Hospital Radiology Residency website. We are pleased that our program is of interest to you. We appreciate this opportunity to introduce you to our residents and faculty, and to show you our hospital and department.

Our program has many unusual features, which are detailed below. We are proud of our tradition of excellence in education, and our reputation for outstanding clinical training.

Please review the following materials to learn more about our community program. If you have additional questions, please feel free to contact our Program Coordinator, Anila Dalipi, the residents, or myself.


Francis Flaherty, MD


Norwalk Hospital’s residency in Diagnostic Radiology provides a clinically intense but highly supportive environment for resident training, which is essential to our educational philosophy and approach to teaching. The program consists of 10 radiology residents, three alternating with two in each of the four years. The teaching faculty is composed of 16 fellowship-trained radiologists.

The formal didactic education of our residents is extensive. In brief, the morning and noon lectures from our attending radiologists are excellent, with education further strengthened by multiple invited guest lecturers from major institutions such as Yale, Columbia, Thomas Jefferson, and Montefiore. Residents are involved in preparing and presenting weekly tumor boards, an invaluable learning experience and great preparation for fellowship. We sponsor our residents to attend AIRP to learn radiologic-pathologic correlation in preparation for the CORE boards exam. In addition to the board preparation provided by our faculty and guest lecturers, our residents also attend multiple radiology board review and physics review courses.

In the absence of fellows, residents gain a primary role in image interpretation, patient management, decision-making and the performance of procedures. This front-line position enables our residents to acquire substantial clinical skills early on in their training. For this reason, our graduates are eagerly sought for fellowships and attending positions in both academic and private practice settings. Our residents have gone on to fellowship training programs at numerous world-class academic medical centers, leading to successful careers in both academia and private practice.

University Affiliations

Norwalk Hospital is an outstanding, comprehensive community teaching hospital providing services to a diverse patient population. We are able to provide excellent comprehensive clinical training in diagnostic radiology. While Norwalk Hospital has an inpatient pediatric unit with outstanding staff pediatricians and a NICU, acutely sick children are often referred to tertiary care centers. For this reason, our residents perform their pediatric rotations at the Maria Fareri Children’s Hospital at Westchester Medical Center.

We also have a longstanding relationship with Yale University. While we are able to provide a broad exposure to clinical radiology, our residents also have the opportunity to perform elective rotations at Yale in Neuroradiology and other subspecialties.

Given our highly-specialized medical staff, our broad base of clinical pathology, and our relationships with Westchester and Yale, we feel that we have created a program that includes the best of both worlds: the outstanding clinical training a community hospital can provide along with enough university experience to complete a well-rounded training curriculum.

Educational Curriculum

The first few weeks of initial training include a mix of didactics dedicated for the first year radiology residents. These include lectures in the basics of radiology, radiation protection, handling of emergency situations (particularly contrast reactions), ultrasound, and fluoroscopy. The clinical rotations are in four-week blocks incorporating the usual subspecialties of diagnostic radiology. Our curriculum is organ-system based with core rotations in musculoskeletal imaging, neuroradiology, interventional radiology, body imaging, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, mammography, and fluoroscopy.

Residents obtain comprehensive pediatric radiology training at the nearby Maria Fareri Children’s Hospital of Westchester Medical Center.

A one-month American Institute for Radiologic Pathology (AIRP) rotation is typically scheduled during the third year prior to the board exam.

In the fourth year, residents have elective blocks which can be used for advanced clinical rotations or research. It should be noted that clinical rotations are selected and arranged in order to facilitate and enhance each resident’s training and education; they are not based on fulfilling necessities of clinical coverage.

After passing the CORE board exam, residents may elect to perform one or more mini-fellowships in subspecialty areas such as Advanced Neuroimaging, Musculoskeletal MRI, and Advanced Body MRI.

There are two learning conferences daily, at 7:30 AM and 12:00 PM. These are a mix of didactic lectures and case conferences. Most conferences are given by Norwalk Hospital faculty, but we also incorporate numerous guest lecturers, many luminaries in their fields. We do this both for unusual or rare pathology, such as congenital heart disease, and for exposure to the approaches used at other institutions for more common pathology.
A comprehensive course in radiation physics and radiation biology is integrated into the daily conferences.

Interdisciplinary conferences with other departments are also held regularly, usually on a monthly basis. We currently have joint conferences with pulmonary medicine, hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal surgery, gyn-oncology, heme-oncology, neurosurgery, breast oncology, and gastroenterology. Residents prepare and present cases for these interdisciplinary conferences on a weekly or monthly basis.

Research and Investigation

We feel that participation in research is a crucial component of residency training. While four years is a relatively short time to become a competent clinical radiologist and to receive board certification, it is also clear to us that participation in research enhances critical thinking and results in a more well-rounded physician. While we strongly encourage scholarly pursuits, our formal requirement is that each resident prepare at least one case report, abstract, or paper suitable for publication, and a QI/QA project during their four years of training. In practice, most residents do significantly more than this and some have prepared and published numerous papers and projects.

Time is made available for research and investigation during dedicated research electives.

Norwalk Hospital will pay the travel and lodging expenses for residents attending conferences for purposes of presenting a paper or exhibit.

Norwalk Hospital has an Interdisciplinary Research Committee overseeing and coordinating projects involving various departments. In addition, we have a network research advisor, a hospital-wide research coordinator, a biostatistician, and other support staff as needed.

Salary and Program Benefits

Norwalk Hospital resident salaries are highly competitive based on the market trends of the coastal Northeast. This enables residents to afford housing or modern apartments close to the hospital, many within walking distance. Additionally, parking is free at the hospital including a covered parking ramp.

Medical, dental, life, and disability insurance are provided for the house staff and their families.

All first-year radiology residents receive from the faculty a comprehensive set of radiology textbooks deemed important for learning general radiology and passing the CORE exam.

For the American Institute for Radiologic Pathology (AIRP), the department and faculty cover tuition, living, and travel expenses.

A physics review course and a clinical review course for the ABR Core exam are fully reimbursed.


Q: What are the most positive features of your program?
A: Among many points:

  • Emphasis on resident education
  • Outstanding fellowship-trained faculty
  • Superior clinical training
  • Outstanding board passage statistics
  • Community, inpatient, outpatient, and university hospital rotations
  • State-of-the-art equipment
  • Outstanding outpatient center
  • State-of-the-art PACS, RIS, voice recognition, EMR
  • Great location
  • Congenial atmosphere

Q: What kind of applicant are you looking for?
A: Like most programs, we seek applicants who are highly motivated and show a commitment to clinical and academic excellence. Transcripts, clinical evaluations, letters of recommendations, and USMLE scores are all considered. However, since we are a close-knit and supportive department, we also place great emphasis on personality in order to ensure the right fit. We do not discriminate against applicants with unconventional backgrounds or with prior post-graduate training in other fields.

Q: How many candidates do you interview?
A: We interview in the range of 90-100 applicants.

Q: Do you use rankings, USMLE scores, or other cutoffs?
A: No. We consider each candidate as an individual. To do so otherwise would be contrary to the philosophy of our program.

Q: What is the deadline for applications?
A: We have no absolute deadline but submission by November 15 is strongly encouraged.

Q: What becomes of your graduates?
A: Most graduates go on to fellowship training in subspecialties at top institutions. This list includes Yale, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Columbia, Stanford, UCLA, Brown, Mt. Sinai, Duke, UCSF, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, etc. Our most recent residents have matched at the following programs:

Musculoskeletal Imaging – University of Missouri, MO
Abdominal Imaging/Cross Sectional IR – University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), CA –

Musculoskeletal Imaging—University of Wisconsin, WI
Abdominal Imaging & Ultrasound—University of California San Francisco, CA
Musculoskeletal Imaging—University of California Irvine – Long Beach, CA

Breast & Body Imaging—Northwell Health, NY
Body Imaging—Thomas Jefferson University, PA

Neuroradiology—Mount Sinai, NY
Breast & Body Imaging—Northwell Health, NY
Neuroradiology—Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, MA

Interventional Radiology—Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, NH
Breast & Body Imaging—Northwell Health, NY

University of California, Irvine, CA – Musculoskeletal Radiology
Baylor Medical Center, Houston, TX – Breast Imaging
Northwell Health, NY – Musculoskeletal Radiology

University of California, San Francisco – Neuroradiology

Yale-New Haven Hospital – Neuroradiology
University of California San Francisco (UCSF) – Body Radiology

Stanford University – Pediatric Radiology
Yale-New Haven Hospital – Neuroradiology
Medical University of South Carolina – Vascular/Interventional Radiology

NYU Langone Medical Center – Neuroradiology
Harvard/Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center – Neuroradiology
Yale-New Haven Hospital – Nuclear Medicine

Duke University Medical Center – Neuroradiology
New York Presbyterian-Weill Cornell Medical Center/Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center – Neuroradiology

University of Maryland Medical Center – Thoracic Radiology
St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center – Body Radiology
University of Southern California – Vascular/Interventional Radiology



University of Maryland – Women’s Imaging

Mt. Sinai Hospital – Neuroradiology



New York-Presbyterian Hospital & Weill Medical College of Cornell University – Musculoskeletal Radiology

University of Southern California – Vascular/Interventional Radiology



Yale-New Haven Hospital – Breast Imaging

Massachusetts General Hospital – Musculoskeletal Radiology



Yale-New Haven Hospital – Women’s Imaging

Thomas Jefferson University – Neuroradiology



Thomas Jefferson University – Body Imaging

Columbia University – Body Imaging



Yale-New Haven Hospital – Abdominal Imaging

Yale-New Haven Hospital – Women’s Imaging



Columbia University – Neuroradiology

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology – Nuclear Medicine


Q: Do you sponsor J-1 and/or H-1 visas?

A: The residency program has accepted J-1 visas. In regard to H-1 visas, we do sponsor those on occasion, but that would be determined by the Program Director at the time of the interview. We prefer that all requirements for the H-1 visa be completed prior to us sponsoring a visa.


Q: Do you accept applications from international medical graduates?

A: Yes. Although the majority of our residents are from U.S. medical schools, we have had several excellent international graduates in our program over the years, and we value diversity. Educational and/or clinical experience in this country strengthens one’s application considerably. There are several requirements prior to consideration for international medical graduates. An ECFMG certificate and an ACGME-accredited clinical year are required (Internal Medicine, Surgery, Pediatrics or Transitional). We participate in the ERAS program, and paper applications are not accepted. Learn more about the ECFMG-ERAS program.


Q: How many residents per year are accepted?

A: Two alternating with three, resulting in a total of ten residents.


Q: What is your call frequency?

A: Because we are a small residency, call may be more frequent than at some larger programs. All call is performed with contemporaneous attending oversight. Call is front-loaded to give younger residents more experience, and allowing less call for more senior residents studying for their board examinations. We believe that on-call experience is necessary for training but that call should not be exhausting or abusive. There is overnight attending coverage with the residents able to leave the hospital at 10:00 PM on weekdays, and 8:00 pm on weekends. There is no night-float rotation.


Q: What kind of conferences do you have, and how often?

A: We have two conferences a day – morning and noon – that are either didactic presentations or case conferences. In addition, we have multiple regular guest lecturers (some of whom are prior oral board examiners) who give conferences on a range of both common and unusual topics.

Inter-departmental tumor boards with the Internal Medicine residents, GI fellows, and Pulmonary fellows also occur on a monthly basis. This averages out to approximately 2-3 hours of protected resident education per day.


Q: Are there any areas where you feel your education could be improved?

A: Norwalk Hospital has a surprisingly broad spectrum of cases with the case volume and variety further supplemented through access to cases from Danbury and New Milford Hospital.

Since the bulk of pediatric imaging has migrated to dedicated pediatric hospitals, our residents perform their pediatric rotations at the Maria Fareri Children’s Hospital of Westchester Medical Center.  Our residents work side-by-side with their faculty, and have the same privileges and responsibilities as their residents.


Q: Do residents have much autonomy?

A: Resident autonomy is a priority of the Radiology department. While everything read by a resident is over-read by an attending, the residents are first-line in protocoling radiological exams, departmental problem solving, and providing consults for visiting clinicians. As residents become more proficient in procedures, more independence is encouraged based on both resident and attending comfort level. As a reminder, there are no fellows in the Radiology department competing for complex cases or procedures. In addition, the residents are in charge of their own call schedule and scheduled vacation time.


Q: What other perks does your program offer?

A: Where to begin?

  • 20 days of annual vacation
  • Five days of annual CME/conference time
  • Ability to decide when to take vacation (with only minor restrictions)
  • Ability to decide call schedule
  • Faculty provides a comprehensive set of new textbooks for the incoming R1 residents
  • Coverage for AIRP tuition, living, and travel expenses.
  • Two board review courses subsidized by the program, including physics.
  • Expenses covered for travel costs if presenting research at a conference.


Q: What is the benefit of NOT having radiology fellows at Norwalk Hospital?

A: More advanced and versatile residents

  • With no fellows in the way, residents gain direct, hands-on training in diagnostic and interventional procedures that are otherwise reserved for fellows in other programs.
  • The relationship between faculty and residents is close and personal, with attendings working one-on-one with residents throughout each day. Discussion, suggestions, and examples drive each resident to a higher level of clinical competence and confidence.